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Assessment for learning is set in the context of conflicts and synergies with the other purposes of assessments. The core ideas are that it is characterized by the day-to-day use of evidence to guide students’ learning and that everyday practice must be grounded in theories of how people learn. Its development can change the classroom roles of both teachers and students. In this chapter, the ways in which practice varies when broad aims of science education change are illustrated in relation to practices in other school subjects. This free selection includes the Table of Contents and Index.