Our students are not blank slates. They come to school with a wide range of experiences that have shaped their science understandings—reading books, watching TV, and playing video games. From many years of research about student science ideas, it is evident that student science misconceptions are prevalent, strongly held, and highly resistant to change. In this chapter, the authors describe some research-based strategies that science teachers can use to assess and address students’ misconceptions. This sample chapter also includes the Table of Contents, Dedication, Foreword, and Index.