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Chemical Reactions: A World of Reactions Science Object
Science Object
Chemical Reactions: A World of Reactions
Grade Level: Elementary School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Chemical Reactions SciPack. It explains that chemical reactions occur all around us, for example in health care, cooking, cosmetics, and automobiles. An enormous variety of biological, chemical, and physical phenomena can be explained by changes...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Chemical Reactions SciPack. It explains that chemical reactions occur all around us, for example in health care, cooking, cosmetics, and automobiles. An enormous variety of biological, chemical, and physical phenomena can be explained by changes in the arrangement and motion of atoms and molecules. An atom's electron configuration, particularly the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. Atoms form bonds to other atoms by transferring or sharing electrons. Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form a variety of structures, and complex chemical reactions involving these molecules take place constantly in every cell in living objects.
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Resources and Human Impact: Earth as a System Science Object
Science Object
Resources and Human Impact: Earth as a System
Grade Level: Elementary School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NOAA and NSTA, is the first of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human beings, who live within and depend on Earth’s ecosystems, modify the land, ocean, and atmosphere. In all environments, organisms, including humans,...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NOAA and NSTA, is the first of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human beings, who live within and depend on Earth’s ecosystems, modify the land, ocean, and atmosphere. In all environments, organisms, including humans, cooperate or compete with one another for resources. These resources include food, air, water, and space. The size and rate of growth of all species, including humans, are affected by these environmental factors. In turn, these environmental factors are affected by the size and rate of growth of a population. Populations are limited in growth by the carrying capacity of the environment, which is the amount of life any ecosystem can support with its available space, energy, water, and food.
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Chemical Reactions: Categorizing Chemical Reactions Science Object
Science Object
Chemical Reactions: Categorizing Chemical Reactions
Grade Level: Elementary School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Chemical Reactions SciPack. It provides an understanding of the idea that a large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Chemical Reactions SciPack. It provides an understanding of the idea that a large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other reactions, chemical bonds are broken by heat or light to form very reactive radicals with electrons ready to form new bonds. Reactions involving these radicals control many processes such as the presence of ozone and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, burning and processing of fossil fuels, the formation of polymers, and explosions.
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Chemical Reactions: Matter and Energy in Reactions Science Object
Science Object
Chemical Reactions: Matter and Energy in Reactions
Grade Level: Elementary School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the final of four Science Objects in the Chemical Reactions SciPack. It explains how different configurations of atoms and molecules are associated with different energy levels. Some changes of configuration among atoms and molecules require a net input of energy whereas others cause...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the final of four Science Objects in the Chemical Reactions SciPack. It explains how different configurations of atoms and molecules are associated with different energy levels. Some changes of configuration among atoms and molecules require a net input of energy whereas others cause a net release. As a result, chemical reactions may release or consume energy. Some reactions such as the burning of fossil fuels release large amounts of energy by losing heat and by emitting light. Energy from light and other electromagnetic radiation can initiate many chemical reactions such as photosynthesis and the evolution of urban smog. The behavior of atoms in chemical reactions demonstrates the conservation of matter: When the number of atoms in a closed system stays the same, their total mass remains constant no matter how they are rearranged.
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Chemical Reactions: Rates of Chemical Reactions Science Object
Science Object
Chemical Reactions: Rates of Chemical Reactions
Grade Level: Elementary School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Chemical Reactions SciPack. It demonstrates how chemical reactions can take place in time periods ranging from the few femto-seconds (10-15 seconds) required for an atom to move a fraction of a chemical bond distance to geologic time scales...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Chemical Reactions SciPack. It demonstrates how chemical reactions can take place in time periods ranging from the few femto-seconds (10-15 seconds) required for an atom to move a fraction of a chemical bond distance to geologic time scales of billions of years. The rate of reactions among atoms and molecules depends on how often they encounter one another, which is affected by the concentration, pressure (for gases), and temperature of the reacting substances. The configuration of atoms in a molecule determines the molecule's properties. Shapes are particularly important in determining how large molecules interact with others. Some atoms and molecules called catalysts are highly effective in accelerating chemical reactions. Chemical reactions in living systems are catalyzed by protein molecules called enzymes.
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Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis
 Science Object
Science Object
Coral Reef Ecosystems: Ecosystems in Crisis
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NOAA and NSTA, is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the natural and human causes of ecosystem stress. Human beings live near coral ecosystems and use them in a variety of ways. Increasing amounts of stress is brought...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NOAA and NSTA, is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the natural and human causes of ecosystem stress. Human beings live near coral ecosystems and use them in a variety of ways. Increasing amounts of stress is brought on these ecosystems as humans continue to modify the surrounding environment as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening the stability and overall health of many coral reefs. Human activities may also exacerbate the impact of natural disturbances on coral reefs or compromise the ability of the reef to recover from events such as hurricanes, tsunamis, or disease.
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Cell Division and Differentiation: Multicellular Organization Science Object
Science Object
Cell Division and Differentiation: Multicellular Organization
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the third of three Science Objects in the Cell Division and Differentiation SciPack. It investigates the hierarchy and various structures of the groups of specialized and unspecialized cells in multicellular organisms. Each type of cell forms tissues and organs that comprise the...  [view full summary]

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the third of three Science Objects in the Cell Division and Differentiation SciPack. It investigates the hierarchy and various structures of the groups of specialized and unspecialized cells in multicellular organisms.

Each type of cell forms tissues and organs that comprise the final organism. This differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes. Differentiation and specialization is necessary in multicellular organisms because maintaining a full complement of all cellular capabilities is costly and/or incompatible with meeting all the organism’s needs.

Groups of specialized cells cooperate to form a tissue, such as a muscle. Different tissues are in turn grouped together to form larger functional units, called organs. Each type of cell, tissue, and organ has a distinct structure and set of functions that serve the organism as a whole. Different body tissues and organs are made up of different kinds of cells. Undifferentiated cells, called adult stem cells, also exist among the differentiated cells in tissues and organs of mature multicellular organisms. These adult stem cells function primarily to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found through regulated growth and differentiation.

Learning Outcomes:
  • Compare and contrast how cells, tissue and organs function in a multicellular organism.
  • Explain why stem cells are important in adult organisms.
  • Explain how stem cell therapies can be effective for treating some diseases and conditions.

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Cell Division and Differentiation: Variation and Specialization of Cells Science Object
Science Object
Cell Division and Differentiation: Variation and Specialization of Cells
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of three Science Objects in the Cell Division and Differentiation SciPack. It explores the processes that take place within cells that allow for selective gene expression, which leads to the specialization and variation of cells in organisms. Cell functions are turned...  [view full summary]

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of three Science Objects in the Cell Division and Differentiation SciPack. It explores the processes that take place within cells that allow for selective gene expression, which leads to the specialization and variation of cells in organisms.

Cell functions are turned on and off by regulatory genes, through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins. Although cells in a multi–celled organism begin alike, having essentially identical genetic instructions, selective expression of individual genes (cells are regulated) causes the unspecialized embryonic stem cells to become very different (cells can differentiate). The embryonic stem cells become increasingly more specialized, differentiating into a variety of cell types. Selective expression results when different parts of the genetic instructions are used in different types of cells, influenced by the cell's environment and past history.

The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. In specialized cells, other protein molecules may carry oxygen, effect contraction, respond to outside stimuli, or provide material for other body structures. In still other cells, assembled molecules may be exported to serve as hormones, antibodies, or digestive enzymes.

Learning Outcomes:
  • Explain the role of regulatory genes and how they function.
  • Explain how it is possible for different types of cells, such as bone cells and liver cells, to have identical genetic instructions and function differently.
  • Describe the role of embryonic stem cells in the development and growth of complex organisms.
  • Interpret data presented in graphs and charts from experiments addressing the role that protein-related variables (such as hormones, antibodies and digestive enzymes) play in the regulation of a complex organism’s life processes.

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Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reef Science Object
Science Object
Coral Reef Ecosystems: The Living Reef
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NOAA and NSTA, is the first of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. Coral reefs are very complex systems that create one of the largest structures on Earth of biological origins....  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NOAA and NSTA, is the first of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the unique and diverse ecosystem of the coral reef. Coral reefs are very complex systems that create one of the largest structures on Earth of biological origins. Thousands of coral species exist in oceans worldwide. Reef-building corals remain on the same spot of the sea floor through their entire lives and have developed reproductive, feeding, and social behaviors suited to their situation. As they grow, reefs provide structural habitats for hundreds to thousands of different organisms.
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Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence Science Object
Science Object
Coral Reef Ecosystems: Interdependence
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NOAA and NSTA, is the third of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the interdependent relationships between species in the coral reef ecosystem. All populations in the reef ecosystem are a part of and depend on a global food web...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NOAA and NSTA, is the third of four Science Objects in the Coral Reef Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the interdependent relationships between species in the coral reef ecosystem. All populations in the reef ecosystem are a part of and depend on a global food web (a connected set of food chains) through which energy flows in one direction, from the sun into organism and eventually dissipating into the environment as heat. This food web includes ocean plants, the animals that feed on them, and the animals that feed on those animals. Energy is transferred between organisms and their environment along the way. Energy concentration diminishes at each step. The cycles of life continue indefinitely because organisms decompose after death and return food materials to the environment.
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