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Force and Motion: Newton's Second Law Science Object
Science Object
Force and Motion: Newton's Second Law
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of Newton’s Second Law of Motion. An object’s change in motion is proportional to the net force applied to the object and inversely proportional to the mass of...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of Newton’s Second Law of Motion. An object’s change in motion is proportional to the net force applied to the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object (being the measure of its inertia). The magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F = ma, which is independent of the nature of the force acting on the object.
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Force and Motion: Newton's First Law Science Object
Science Object
Force and Motion: Newton's First Law
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of Newton’s First Law of Motion. All objects will maintain a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it. When an unbalanced...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of Newton’s First Law of Motion. All objects will maintain a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced outside force acts on it. When an unbalanced force acts on an object, its speed or direction (or both) will change. The tendency of objects to maintain a constant speed and direction of motion (velocity) in the absence of an unbalanced force is known as intertia. Even in the most familiar, every day situations, frictional forces can complicate the analysis of motion, although the basic principles still apply.
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Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems: Does Matter Matter? Science Object
Science Object
Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems: Does Matter Matter?
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of three Science Objects in the Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the structure of the biomass in an ecosystem and overall cycling of matter. However complex the workings of living organisms, they share with all other systems the same physical...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of three Science Objects in the Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems SciPack. It explores the structure of the biomass in an ecosystem and overall cycling of matter. However complex the workings of living organisms, they share with all other systems the same physical principles that describe the conservation and transformation of matter.

Ecosystems are a community of interdependent organisms and the chemical and physical factors making up the environment with which they interact. For every ecosystem on Earth there is a particular biomass (matter) distribution among organisms in its populations. While the specific biomass distribution in any given ecosystem is unique because of resource availability, there is a common overall biomass distribution pattern in all ecosystems. Greater biomass exists in populations that obtain matter from the physical environment than in populations that obtain matter from other living organisms. As matter flows through different levels of organization in living systems—cells, organs, organisms, communities—and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined in different ways. Matter is conserved through each change.

Learning Outcomes:
  • Define an ecosystem and understand how it comprises an interdependent community of organisms along with their interactions with the chemical and physical components of the environment
  • Categorize organisms in a community based on their sources of matter/biomass and nutrients as one of the following: producers, herbivores (primary consumers), carnivores (secondary consumers; tertiary or top-consumers),
  • omnivores, and decomposers
  • Predict the relative biomass for different levels in a biomass pyramid for a typical ecosystem
  • Explain how matter is conserved in the interactions between consumers and producers, but that in a biomass pyramid there is less biomass at the consumer level compared to the producer level

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Force and Motion: Newton's Third Law Science Object
Science Object
Force and Motion: Newton's Third Law
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the last of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of Newton’s Third Law of Motion, addressing common misconceptions associated with this law. Whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the last of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of Newton’s Third Law of Motion, addressing common misconceptions associated with this law. Whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal amount of force is exerted back on it. These equal and opposite forces are exerted simultaneously on the objects involved.
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Energy: Useful and Not So Useful Energy Science Object
Science Object
Energy: Useful and Not So Useful Energy
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Energy SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of why energy in some forms can easily be used but in other forms is difficult to use. Energy transformations usually produce some heat, which is transferred to cooler...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Energy SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of why energy in some forms can easily be used but in other forms is difficult to use. Energy transformations usually produce some heat, which is transferred to cooler places or objects in the surrounding area via radiation or conduction. In such interactions the number of atoms or molecules is very large and statistics dictate that they will end up with less order than that the initial state. Although just as much total energy remains, it is more widely distributed or spread out which means less can be done with it. This is because useful transfer of energy can be accomplished only when energy is concentrated (such as in falling water, in high-energy molecules in fuels and food, or in radiation from sources such as the intensely hot sun).
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Energy: Thermal Energy, Heat, and Temperature Science Object
Science Object
Energy: Thermal Energy, Heat, and Temperature
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Energy SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of the relationship between thermal energy, heat, and temperature. The thermal energy of a material consists of the disordered motion of its atoms or molecules. Thermal...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Energy SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of the relationship between thermal energy, heat, and temperature. The thermal energy of a material consists of the disordered motion of its atoms or molecules. Thermal energy can be transferred through materials or from one material to another by conduction (the collisions of atoms), or across space by radiation. If the material is fluid, convection currents aid the transfer of thermal energy (convection). When thermal energy is transferred it is called heat. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules in a material.
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Force and Motion: Position and Motion Science Object
Science Object
Force and Motion: Position and Motion
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides an understanding of how changes in position and motion can affect the way objects move, focusing on constant motion (where the direction and speed remain the same) and acceleration (a change in motion...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Force and Motion SciPack. It provides an understanding of how changes in position and motion can affect the way objects move, focusing on constant motion (where the direction and speed remain the same) and acceleration (a change in motion due to a change in an object’s direction or speed). The position of an object must be described relative to some other object while the motion of an object can be described by its direction and speed. Velocity is a measure of both an object’s speed and its direction (and can be described by vectors).
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Earth, Sun, and Moon: General Characteristics of Earth Science Object
Science Object
Earth, Sun, and Moon: General Characteristics of Earth
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NASA and NSTA, is the first of four Science Objects in the Earth, Sun, and Moon SciPack. It provides an understanding of how the different spheres (atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere) of Earth interact and why each plays an important role in making Earth...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object, co-developed between NASA and NSTA, is the first of four Science Objects in the Earth, Sun, and Moon SciPack. It provides an understanding of how the different spheres (atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere) of Earth interact and why each plays an important role in making Earth the only planet with the conditions necessary for life. Earth is approximately spherical in shape like all planets and stars. Earth is composed mostly of rock. Three-fourths of its surface is covered by a relatively thin layer of water (some of it frozen), and the entire planet is surrounded by a relatively thin blanket of air.
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Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems: Carbon, Carbon Everywhere Science Object
Science Object
Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems: Carbon, Carbon Everywhere
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of three Science Objects in the Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems SciPack. It explores how the cycling of carbon and other nutrients from non-living to living components and back is one of the most important of ecosystem functions and is representative of the cycling...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of three Science Objects in the Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems SciPack. It explores how the cycling of carbon and other nutrients from non-living to living components and back is one of the most important of ecosystem functions and is representative of the cycling of other elements.

All matter that comprises organic molecules, including hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous and others are transferred cyclically among living organisms and their non-living environment. The cycling of elements from non-living to living components and back is one of the most important ecosystem characteristics. For example, carbon, an essential element in organic molecules, is conserved as it is transferred from inorganic carbon in an ecosystem to organic molecules in living organisms of the ecosystem and back as inorganic carbon to the environment. The carbon cycle, in the following description, serves as an example of one of the essential biogeochemical cycles.

Learning Outcomes:
  • Trace the path of a carbon atom from the atmosphere through a biomass pyramid and ultimately back to the atmosphere
  • Describe how photosynthesis and consumer respiration affect the flow of carbon through an ecosystem
  • Predict the biological effects of increasing levels of atmospheric carbon due to the massive combustion of fossil fuels
  • Identify the process that emits carbon to the atmosphere from producers, consumers and decomposers

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Heredity and Variation: Genes in Action Science Object
Science Object
Heredity and Variation: Genes in Action
Grade Level: Elementary School, High School, Middle School
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of three Science Objects in the Heredity and Variation SciPack. It explores sexual reproduction and the process of meiosis.

We now know that structures and functions at the molecular and cellular levels provide the mechanism for reproduction and the continuity...  [view full summary]
Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of three Science Objects in the Heredity and Variation SciPack. It explores sexual reproduction and the process of meiosis.

We now know that structures and functions at the molecular and cellular levels provide the mechanism for reproduction and the continuity of species. Instructions for development are passed from parents to offspring in thousands of discrete genes, each of which is a segment of a molecule of DNA. An organism’s particular genetic information, coded in its DNA (genotype), contains genes that provide the information necessary to assemble proteins. Offspring of asexual organisms inherit all of the parent's genes. In organisms that reproduce sexually, specialized female and male sex cells (gametes) are formed during a process of cell division called meiosis. Each of these sex cells contains a random half of the parent's genetic information.

When a particular male gamete fuses with a particular female gamete during fertilization, they form a cell with one complete set of paired chromosomes, a combination of one half-set from each parent. This random combining of gametes and their chromosomes during fertilization results in millions of different possible combinations of genes, which causes the offspring genotypes to vary from their parents’. Some of the new gene combinations make little difference in the ability of the offspring to reproduce or survive, some can produce organisms with capabilities that enhance their ability to survive and reproduce, and some can be deleterious, resulting in an inability to survive and/or reproduce. Learning Outcomes:
  • Distinguish among the following structures by describing their relationship to one another: DNA, chromosomes, genes, and alleles.
  • Describe the role genes play in the production of proteins and defining the phenotype of an organism.
  • Compare and contrast the DNA in cells produced during asexual reproduction versus the DNA in gametes produced during meiosis.
  • Indentify and describe those steps within the process of meiosis that explain the random distribution of genotypes among offspring resulting from sexual reproduction.
  • Explain how the recombination of the allele pairs for individual genes during sexual reproduction results in phenotypic variation among offspring.

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