Claims, Evidence, and Reasoningby: Dean M. Martin and Katherine L. McNeill

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Fifth graders design and test strategies regarding levers to better their construction and justification of claims.

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Reviews (13)
  • on Wed Jun 28, 2017 1:47 AM

The Anchor chart on page 53 is worth you reading the article. It (Figure 1) succinctly encapsulates the terms for easier student understanding.

Deirdre Ricketts  (Jersey Village, TX)
Deirdre Ricketts (Jersey Village, TX)

  • on Tue Sep 06, 2016 7:12 PM

I found this article to be very helpful because it does a great job of explaining in great detail how to teach claims, evidence and reasoning. I like that the authors provided examples of each step of the process and how to assess the students' claims, evidence and reasoning to evaluate their understanding on how to write scientifically. I think this is a great way to implement writing into Science and I can see myself using this within my own classroom!

Kaitlyn Houck
Kaitlyn Houck

  • on Tue Jan 26, 2016 6:38 PM

I found this article very helpful in describing what the claim, evidence, reasoning framework can look like at the elementary level. I teach fifth grade, so I especially appreciated that this is the featured grade. I would be curious to see how this framework might look in lower grades. I plan to use the rubric as it appeared to be very straightforward. I like how Mr. Martin used the rubric at first to inform his own instruction, and later supplied it to students to help with their own self-evaluations. I would like to hear more about the "rebuttal" stage, as I'm confident my fifth graders would benefit from healthy critical peer examination.

Michael Massad  (Austin, TX)
Michael Massad (Austin, TX)

  • on Wed Jun 19, 2013 7:18 PM

This article/lesson idea provided clear and concise instruction on how to teach claims, evidence and reasoning. There are specific examples provided on how to help students develop strong scientific argumentative writing skills at each step. In the new age of Common Core, scientific argumentation will be a "must have" skill. This article does a great job of explaining claims, evidence and reasoning, and it also provided examples on evaluating student writing. This article, while written for elementary grades, applies to all grade levels. As students progress in their writing, the "rebuttal" can be added to further develop their scientific writing skills. I highly recommend this article.

Susanne Hokkanen  (Orland Park, IL)
Susanne Hokkanen (Orland Park, IL)

  • on Wed May 22, 2013 6:43 PM

This article does a great job of explaining in detail how to teach "claims, evidence and reasoning." The authors provided examples of each step of the process. The explanations are clear and concise. The authors even discuss how to assess the students' claims, evidence and reasoning to evaluate student understanding on how to write scientifically. The authors state that is lesson was completed in a 5th grade class. However, the information used in this lesson could be easily implement in a 6-8 grade classroom, and with modifications it could be used through high school. I highly recommend this article - especially in light of the new Common Core Learning Standards.

Susanne Hokkanen  (Orland Park, IL)
Susanne Hokkanen (Orland Park, IL)

  • on Fri Apr 29, 2011 10:41 AM

The reasoning method that the authors describe is difficult for some adults, much less children to follow. I suppose that it would depend on how straight-forward the initial claim was, as to whether a fifth-grade student could grasp the reasoning. Understanding "rebuttal" is fundamental to following the scientific method, yet it is ignored in many science textbooks. In this article, the authors offer many good strategies for scaffolding the lesson, student work examples, and a rubric. I think that I would create a lesson, based on this article, to teach at the beginning of the scientific method unit. I would also include some historical linkages between the Scholastic and the Scientific Revolutionary Period.

Therese H  (Salisbury, MD)
Therese H (Salisbury, MD)

  • on Wed Apr 27, 2011 7:55 PM

This article does a good job deconstructing eaach of the words in th title of this article. The teacher first relates claims, evdence and reasoning to a student's life by askig a simple question, such as "How is your weekend?" The teacher helps the student see that their answwer is a claim and does the same with the remainder of the words. He then described how each of these words connected to the science investigations they were doing. By doing this a framework was developed that the students would use for the remainder of the year. Students would then use this framework to develop strong scientific arguments in discussion and in writing.

Kathy Renfrew  (Barnet, VT)
Kathy Renfrew (Barnet, VT)

  • on Sun Apr 17, 2011 6:14 PM

This article helps upper elementary and lower middle school students learn how to makes claims while connecting evidence to the claiim and providing reasoning for why the evidence supports the claim. I thought this article did a great job of outlining these concepts and providing specific examples of how to model these for students. I think a teacher who is new to teaching with inquiry would benefit from the information in this article as much as an experienced teacher.

Kate Geer  (Louisville, CO)
Kate Geer (Louisville, CO)

  • on Thu Apr 07, 2011 12:22 PM

This is an extremely helpful article in terms of aiding students in understanding scientific argumentation. I especially like the framework of claim, evidence, reasoning (and later, rebuttal). Mr. Martin, featured in the article, also used excellent questions to introduce students to this framework. He effectively got students thinking about these words--claim, evidence, and reasoning--in terms of their own lives.These framework words were then worked into the discussions, lessons, assignments, and assessments throughout the year. Finally, the use of rubrics to identify students' strengths and weaknesses in students' writing about their simple machine investigations was a great idea and truly contributed to improving the teacher's lessons.

Caitlin  (Cheshire, CT)
Caitlin (Cheshire, CT)

  • on Tue Feb 02, 2016 4:51 PM

This is a great article to use when first working with claims, evidence, and reasoning. It gives you great examples and ideas to use within your classroom.

Stephanie Dempsey  (Buda, TX)
Stephanie Dempsey (Buda, TX)

  • on Tue Jul 28, 2015 12:06 AM

I look forward to trying this method of recording and summary with my classes to improve understanding and retention

Jennifer Sutton  (Barry, TX)
Jennifer Sutton (Barry, TX)

  • on Tue Jul 14, 2015 9:55 PM

Great article on how to start students to develop claims, evidence, and reasoning in their science lessons. A great way to incorporate writing into the science. Love the reasoning piece. I can see doing this same thing in many of my math problem solving lessons.

Felicia Hayes  (Little Rock, AR)
Felicia Hayes (Little Rock, AR)

  • on Thu Apr 07, 2011 7:37 PM

I found this article to be useful, especially when introducing the idea of scientific argumentation to students at the elementary level. Giving students a framework for this kind of discussion will help clarify its purpose, and will serve as an organizational tool that students can use to build their arguments and communicate effectively with one another. The idea of introducing this framework through everyday “claims,” like “Who is the best basketball player?” is an excellent way to engage children by appealing to their interests and breaking down information into comprehensible parts. The author points out that using graphic organizers is another beneficial strategy that will help students make sense of their data, especially when first learning about data collection and organization of evidence to support or refute one’s claim. The article also discusses some of the challenges that students may face when working through this material. As a teacher, it is essential to be aware of stu

Stephanie C
Stephanie C

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