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The ability of students to “do” biology and to understand biology concepts is essential. Developing biology lessons and assessing for an understanding of biology skills and concepts go hand-in-hand. Well-designed biology lessons result from well-designed assessments—ones focused on the important key understandings in biology. Summative tests, such as end-of-year unit or semester exams, represent one important way to assess student knowledge. But formative assessments—sometimes called ongoing assessments—such as monitoring students’ small-group conversations or evaluating students’ science notebooks are another. When you assess students’ ongoing learning, you gather information that can direct teaching decisions in the moment. This chapter focuses on in-the-moment assessments.