How Assessment and Testing Developedby: Edwin P. Christmann and John L. Badgett

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The United States has approximately 55 million students in grades K–12. On average, teachers administer 100 teacher-generated tests per school year, which translates into America’s students taking approximately 550 million—that’s 550,000,000—teacher-generated tests per year. Taking this extraordinary number into consideration, it should be clear that an understanding of testing is essential for teaching practitioners throughout all grade levels and subject areas. If you are a teacher, you need to understand the methods and procedures of educational measurement, not only to be competent, but also to be able to design tests that consistently measure the intended outcomes of your classroom instruction. This free selection provides a historical context of assessment practices commonly used in the classroom today. It also includes the Table of Contents and Index.

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Reviews (2)
  • on Thu Apr 12, 2012 5:16 PM

For teachers needing a refresher on the common terms that are used when discussing assessments, this book chapter is an excellent resource. The authors discuss achievement, intelligence, and aptitude tests; criterion- and norm-referenced tests; odd-even method and split-halves method for determining reliability; test bias; and teacher-generated tests vs. high-stakes testing. After reading this chapter, teachers will understand the difference between reliability and validity, be able to compare and contrast the different types of tests, and know something about the historical timeline of educational testing. There is an appendix included that contains a historical timeline in chart format.

Carolyn M  (Buffalo Grove, IL)
Carolyn M (Buffalo Grove, IL)

  • on Wed Jan 02, 2013 4:43 PM

This provides a very general but concise overview of the development of testing in education starting with ancient history through NCLB 2001. I have problems with some of the facts presented, like saying standardized tests weren't invented until the 1920's, ignoring the fact that the NY Regents exams first began after 1869, and under-emphasizing the role of standardized testing in historical China, but the overall historical gist is correct. For anyone who wants to better understand Standardized Testing - why it was developed and what it was originally intended for vs. the uses for it today this provides wonderful information. For in-service or pre-service teachers, it provides a justification for the emphasis given to standardized test scores and why consumers (teachers, students, parents, administrators, etc) need to be mindful of their use.

Tina Harris  (Bloomington, IN)
Tina Harris (Bloomington, IN)

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